American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915)

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Exist Dates

1909 - 1915

Biographical or Historical Note

abstract
The American Museum Congo Expedition (1909-1915) was sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History and made possible through the support of the Belgian government. The expedition party consisted of just two men. Herbert Lang, a German-born taxidermist and mammalogist was Expedition leader and photographer; James Paul Chapin, a student and ornithologist who worked at the Museum was selected to be his Assistant. The main goal was to expand the Museum’s collection of African zoological specimens, but Lang was also tasked with acquiring ethnographic material. The Museum was particularly eager to obtain specimens of the recently discovered (1901) okapi and the square-lipped, or white, rhinoceros. Lang and Chapin successfully traveled throughout the Congo region in central Africa (modern day Zaire) to ultimately collect a massive fifty-four tons of material and over 9000 photographs for the Museum. (1)

Museum President Morris K. Jesup first thought of the idea of sending an expedition to the Congo region of Africa and was a personal friend of Pierre Mali, the Belgian Consul in NY. As early as February of 1907 (2) Jesup and Mali began discussing the possibilities of a Congo exhibit at the Museum with Secretary General of the Congo Free State Charles Liebrechts and Consul General of the Congo Free State James Gustavus Whiteley. In the spring (3) of that year, Museum Director Hermon Carey Bumpus was sent to Brussels to further the Museum’s cause; King Leopold was very supportive of the idea and gifted the Museum with 3000 anthropological objects to be showcased in a new exhibit for the African Hall, which would open in 1910.

Political and humanitarian interest in central Africa had increased during the turn of the century. The Museum became somewhat embroiled in the controversy through their relationship with Leopold. (4) In 1908 King Leopold’s privately owned Congo Free State had been annexed by the Belgian Government and was now the Belgian Congo, a colony of Belgium. (5) When President Jesup died in 1908, President Osborne actively took up the project. The Special Committee on the Congo Expeditions was formed by Osborne, and its members were John Trevor, Bumpus, Whiteley, Robert W. Goelet, Herbert L. Bridgman and Frank M. Chapman. Much necessary correspondence and meetings occurred between these American delegates, Museum representatives and the Belgian government officers in preparation for the expedition. The funds needed for the Expedition were acquired through gifts of Trustees, a gift of 6800 francs from the Belgian government, and the Morris Jesup endowment. (6).

Word of official permission for the Expedition was received from Moncheur and Whiteley on April 2, 1909; in May Lang and Chapin sailed from New York City to Antwerp. With letters of introduction to government officials, they obtained requisite permissions, and made other arrangements necessary for travel throughout the Congo region. They arrived in Boma on the west coast of the continent in June of 1909 and from there traveled up the Congo river to Leopoldville, where they engaged three native men as assistants. After journeying to Stanleyville they hired and trained another eighteen men (three later left, leaving them eighteen in total) to act as invaluable assistants for collecting, tracking, preparing, and hunting during the course of the Expedition. Thousands of short-term porters were hired locally to man the caravans from site to site.

Communication and travel were very slow and it quickly became clear to the team that more time and money would be necessary, which were granted from the Museum (7). During their tenure in the Congo, Lang and Chapin set up a number of base camps at Avakubi, Medje, and Faradje, from which they would go out on collecting trips. There were European officers stationed at each of the Congo outposts who assisted them by providing shelter, and helping them to barter goods and hire porters. Their collecting was assisted by many individuals that they encountered who would provide specimens they had acquired through hunting and through introducing them to local hunters and trackers. The pair was introduced to members of local tribes such as the Mangbetu and Azande, including tribal chief kings and queens. These relationships provided the ability to have additional context for the growing anthropological collection as well as Lang’s portrait photographs. He did his developing on site at night, and prior to the expedition had arranged with the Museum to maintain intellectual ownership of the images during his lifetime. Both Lang and Chapin took copious detailed notes for their specimens, with Chapin completing multiple drawings and watercolors. Chapin admired and noted Lang’s tireless work ethic and came to be known as mtoto na Langi (Lang’s son) by many of the Congolese (8).

They finished their bulk field work in late 1912. As they slowly made the return journey to the west coast of Africa they would continue to collect items for the Museum, but their primary focus was now on the issue of transportation for the materials. Chapin took the primary role in organizing this. Among the many concessions that had been bargained before the expedition, the team had been granted free storage for all their specimens in each Province magazine. However, the packing and shipping of material was problematic due to the volume of material and lack of packing supplies.World War I broke out, creating sea route issues and transportation difficulties for Lang, a German. In December of 1914 Chapin sailed for America with the first batch of the collection, and Lang followed in late 1915.

The Expedition ultimately provided the museum with fifty-four tons of material and photographs which were consequently studied by a team of scientists in America and Great Britain. Not only did they successfully bring back the okapi and white rhinosceros, but the collection also contributed 5800 mammals, 6241 birds, 4800 reptiles and batrachians, 5400 fishes, 110,000 invertebrates, 3800 ethnographic objects, and 9500 photographs in 40 albums to the Museum's African collection. (9) Preliminary scientific findings were released throuhgout the decade, and studies continued on throughout the 1920s-1930s.

Sources

    VIAF ID: 139828946 (Corporate)
    Library of Congress Name Authority File: no 00100361
    (1) Enid Schildkrout, and Curtis A. Keim, African Reflections: Art from Northeastern Zaire (Seattle: University of Washington Press, New York; American Museum of Natural History, 1990), 59
    (2) AMNH Central Administrative Archives 592: Folder: 1907 January –April
    (3) Henry Fairfield Osborn, "The Congo Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History," Bulletin of the AMNH 39, (1919): xvii
    (4) Schildkrout and Keim, 52.
    (5) Encyclopædia Britannica Online, s. v. "Belgian Congo," accessed October 23, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/59224/Belgian-Congo.
    (6) Osborn, xx.
    (7) Osborn, xxi.
    (8) Lyle Rexer and Rachel Klein, American Museum of Natural History: 125 Years of Expedition and Discovery (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, in association with the American Museum of Natural History, 1995), 105.
    (9) American Museum of Natural History. Forty-eighth Annual Report of the American Museum of Natural History For the Year 1916, New York: American Museum of Natural History, (1917), 27.

Chronology

  • 1907: AMNH President Jesup desires to send an expedition to the Congo Free State, plans begin.
  • 1907: King Leopold II receives plans for multi-room Congo Exhibit at Museum and gifts Museum with over 3000 objects.
  • 1907 - 1909: Communications between Museum and Belgian officials regarding Congo Expedition.
  • 1908: the Congo Free State is annexed by the Belgian government and becomes the Belgian Congo.
  • 1908 - 1912: Funds are collected to sponsor the Expedition through Trustees and friends of the Museum.
  • 1908: Herbert Lang is asked to lead the Expedition; requests James Chapin as his assistant.
  • 1909 April 2: Formal letters of permission to proceed with Expedition are received from Belgian government
  • 1909 May 8: Expedition leaves New York City for Antwerp
  • 1909 June 22: Expedition arrives in Boma, Africa, begins
  • 1909 September 12: Bafwaboli External link (Expedition Site)
  • 1909 September 24: BafwasendeExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1909 September 30: Established initial base at Avakubi, beginning the process of training assistants and collecting
  • 1910 - 1913: Bulk of active collecting with base camps at Faradje and Medje. At this point the team would sometimes split up for expedition trips.
  • 1910 October 23: IsiroExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1913 February 19: Left Faradje to begin large scale transport back to Stanleyville. On the trek back the team continued to add specimens to the collection.
  • 1913 July 25 - 1913 August 1: BabeyruExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1913 September 9: Left the Ituri district.
  • 1914 April 19: PengeExternal link (Expedition Site) Chapin alone was at Penge while traveling with the collection.
  • 1914 September 10: BomiliExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1914 September 12: PangaExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1914 September 22 - 1914 September 25: BanaliaExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1914 September 28: BengamisaExternal link (Expedition Site)
  • 1914 December 10: Chapin leaves Stanleyville with first group of collection.
  • 1915 March 31: Chapin arrives in New York with first group of collection.
  • 1915 August: remaining group of the collection is sent to New York by Lang
  • 1915 November 12: Lang returns to New York

Terms

place
New YorkExternal link
Expedition was sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History, located in New York. The team left from and returned there. The embarked on the expedition on 1909 May 8. Chapin returned on 1915 March 31, and lang followed on 1915 November 12.
place
AntwerpenExternal link
place
BruxellesExternal link
place
BomaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Port in Africa where the team arrived on 1909 June 22. They would pass through again separately on the return journey, Chapin on 1914 December 29 and Lang 1915 June 17.
place
Matadi External link
(Expedition Site)

The team traveled through Matadi on three separate visits: 1909 June 24-30 while beginning the expedition, 1914 December 24 by Chapin on the return, and 1915 June 9-16 by Lang on the return trip.
place
KinshasaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

At the time Kinshasa was also known as Leopoldville and was a site between the coast of Africa and the main expedition areas. The team had three stays there, from 1909 July 1-12 together at the beginning of the expedition, and by both Chapin and Lang singly on the return journey. Chapin was at the site on 1914 December 20 while making the trip home and Lang again stayed there 1915 May 18-31.
place
KisanganiExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Formerly known as Stanleyville this was the closest location that the team could utilize for acquiring good to barter with and it was where they hired the majority of their assistants. The team was in Kisangani from 1909 August 3-September 4, and then arrived on 1914 September 30 on the return journey. Chapin left again on December 10, with Lang leaving on 1915 May 10.
place
Bafwaboli External link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1909 September 12
place
BafwasendeExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1909 September 24
place
AvakubiExternal link
(Expedition Site)

The first base camp was set up at Avakubi, and the team stopped here from 1909 September 30-December 7. Chapin traveled through on the return trip 1913 July 31-1914 January 2, with Lang following 1914 August 5-September 9.
place
N'gayu
(Expedition Site)

As a team they traveled through N'Gayu on 1909 December 10-26 and 1914 August 3. Chapin passed through 1913 July 27.
place
BafwabakaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

The team spent time at the site from 1909 December 27-1910 January 10, and Chapin alone returned 1913 July 25.
place
MedjeExternal link
(Expedition Site)

The team established a base camp at Medje and remained there 1910 January 13-October 15. Lang later returned alone while on the return journey and stopped 1914 February 27-July 22.
place
Pawa
(Expedition Site)

The team went to Pawa together on 1910 October 18, and Chapin stayed there again from 1913 July 5-15.
place
IsiroExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1910 October 23
place
Nala
(Expedition Site)

The group went to Nala on 1910 October 26, and later Lang explored the area 1913 July 6-10.
place
Rungu
(Expedition Site)

The team stopped at Rungu 1910 October 28, and then later traveled there 1913 June 24-July 1 while on the trip back.
place
Niangara External link
(Expedition Site)

The expedition team made two trips through Niangara, from 1910 November 1-1911 January 20 , and 1913 June 14-21. Furthermore, Chapin stopped there 1913 March 5.
place
DunguExternal link
(Expedition Site)

The team camped at Dungu 1911 January 25-30, and Chapin alone returned to the site 1913 February 24-March 1.
place
FaradjeExternal link
(Expedition Site)

The team kept their base camp at Faradje from 1911 February 6-1913 February 19 as they explored the Northeastern Uele region.
place
AbaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Chapin visited the Aba camp first on 1911 July 12-18, and the team together later explored it 1911 December 10-22.
place
Vankerckhovenville
(Expedition Site)

Chapin set and explored the Vankerckhovenville camp from 1911 August 9-12, and both Lang and Chapin returened 1912 April 7-24.
place
YakulukuExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang visited Yakalulu twice, first on 1911 November 2-6, and later 1913 March 2-4.
place
BafukuExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang singly explored Bafuka 1913 March 12-24.
place
Garamba (river)External link
(Expedition Site)

Lang traveled to this area 1912 March 10-16, and both Lang and Chapin returned it 1912 May 4-July 24.
place
PokoExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang stayed at Poko from 1913 July 15-August 29.
place
Akenge
(Expedition Site)

Lang stayed at Akenge from 1913 September 1-October 31.
place
NiapuExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang was at Niapu from 1913 November 2-1914 February 20 during the extended trek back.
place
PengeExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 April 19

Chapin alone was at Penge while traveling with the collection.
place
Epulu River
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 April 21

Chapin traveled along a distance of the Epulu River.
place
BabeyruExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1913 July 25-1913 August 1
place
BomiliExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 September 10
place
PangaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 September 12
place
Zambi
(Expedition Site)

Lang singly stopped in Zambi from 1915 June 17-July 2. He continued to add to the collection while organizing the transport for the remainder of the collection, and waiting to return to New York.
place
MalelaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang stayed in Malela 1915 July 2-12.
place
BananaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Lang alone spent time collecting and waiting to journey home in Banana on 1915 July 19-25 and 1915 August 6-September 14.
place
St. Antonio
(Expedition Site)

Lang stayed in St. Antonio on the western African coast from 1915 July 25-August 1.
place
St. Paul de Loanda
(Expedition Site)

Lang alone stayed in St. Paul de Loanda from 1915 September 15-October 1. It is located south of Boma on the western African coast.
place
LisboaExternal link
It was necessary for Lang to take a different route back to the United States. He traveled from Africa to Lisbon, where he stopped 1915 October 10-November 2 before sailing for New York.
place
LiverpoolExternal link
Chapin traveled from Africa to Liverpool, where he boarded a ship with the first group of the collection to sail to New York.
place
BanaliaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 September 22-1914 September 25
place
BengamisaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

dates: 1914 September 28
place
Aruwimi (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Lindi (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Ituri (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Congo (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Nepoko (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Congo (nation)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Congo (general region)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
Uele (river)External link
(Expedition Site)
place
As SūdānExternal link
The sirdar took the team on a hunting trip to the Sudan where they acquired a Giant Eland for the collection.
place
MbandakaExternal link
(Expedition Site)

Related Corporate, Personal, and Family Names

Akenge
associated dates: 1909-1915

chief of the southern Azande near Poko
Alimasi
associated dates: 1909-1915

Described by Lang as his "fearless Mangbetu;" an expedition assistant
American Museum of Natural History
Sponsor of the Congo Expedition, the scientific study of the material and its presentation through exhibits.
Antoine, E.
associated dates: 1909-1915

One of the European heads of outposts, provided them some skins.
Bafuka
associated dates: 1909-1915

Azande tribe chief
Banda
associated dates: 1909-1915

Banda chief who advised about okapi and promised to get four leg skins for the team.
Boyton, Edouard
associated dates: 1909-1915

Lieutenant, Chef de Poste de Medje who assisted in getting supplies to reimburse natives with. In 1910 he advised Lang and Chapin that okapi could be hunted in forests of Medje, which directed their immediate direction.
Bridgman, Herbert L. (Herbert Lawrence), 1844-1924
associated dates: 1909-1915

A journalist, was member of the Special Committee for the Congo Expedition.
Bumpus, Hermon C. (Hermon Carey), 1862-1943
associated dates: 1907-1911

As Director of the American Museum of Natural History until 1911 and appointed to the Special Committee for the Congo Expedition, he was instrumental in communicating with the Belgian authorities to grant permission and in all areas of planning.
Carton de Wiart, EdmondExternal link
associated dates: 1907-1908

Comte, private secretary to the king, brother of the future Belgian prime minister Henri Carton de Wiart.
Chapin, James Paul, 1889-1964
Chapin was one of only two members of the Condo Expedition and acted as Assistant to Herbert Lang. He was asked to join the expedition in 1908, and remained associated with the Museum throughout his career. Although he continued to write and discuss the Congo region, his final volume of Birds of the Congo, based on the findings of this expedition, was in 1954.
Chapman, Frank M. (Michler) (1864-1945)
Museum Curator of Ornithology, member of the Special Committee for the Congo Expedition.
Danga
associated dates: 1909-1915

Rungu chief
De Meulemeester, Adolphe (1870-1944)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Commissaire general de la Province Orientale, Vice-Governor, assisted them to hiring porters and by sending advance notice to every post and acquiring free storage for specimens in every province magazine
DeBecker
associated dates: 1909-1915

Called 'Mandefu,' was helpful to the team in arranging for porters and escorting them on parts of the journeys. Acted as Chef de Poste at Babonde in 1910, had originally been a schoolteacher. His main task was to collect rubber as tax and he reported to Lieutenant Boyton in Medje.
Delhaise, Charles Godefroid Félix François, 1872-External link
associated dates: 1909-1915

Commandant, Chef du Zone de Stanley Falls, Lieutenant Delhaise planned to help get them to the okapi and obtain hunters to assist, and helped with transport of supplies.
Dodge, Cleveland H. (Cleveland Hoadley), 1860-1926
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Dongo
associated dates: 1909-1915

member of the expedition, hunted
Droogmans, Hubert (1858-1938)External link
associated dates: 1909-1915

Secretary General of the Department of Finances, who introduced them to Dr. Van Campenhout who advised before the journey to Africa.
Emandinia
associated dates: 1909-1915

Chief of the Nala pygmies, subject of one of the many plaster casts that were made by the team.
Erikkson, Carl
associated dates: 1909-1915

Lieutenant at Avakubi, had provided Sir Harry Johnston with first okapi specimen (seen by westerners) in 1901, provided shelter for their collection in a brick warehouse with a galvanized iron roof. Had been Chef de Poste at Medje before Boyton, was known as "Simba." Lang and Chapin never actually met Erikkson.
Fuchs, Felix Alexandre (1858-1928)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Vice-Governor General of the Colony at Boma, he welcomed and assisted the expedition and gave permission to collect four elephants.
Gilson
associated dates: 1909-1915

Chief administrator in Rungu, in 1910 he donated 99 mostly Mangbetu objects he had acquired from local chiefs to the Expedition.
Goelet, Robert W.
associated dates: 1909-1915

Donor and member of the Special Committee for the Congo Expedition.
Guyon, Ario
associated dates: 1909-1915

Military official, originally Italian, played a part in acquiring a large gong/drum for the collection, had traveled up the Congo with them in 1909.
Handley, William H.
associated dates: 1909-1915

American Consul General, met them in Boma
Howell
associated dates: 1909-1915

Official in Medje that they encountered and were hosted by throughout the expedition.
Jesup, Morris K. (Morris Ketchum), 1830-1908
associated dates: 1907-1908

President of the Museum until 1908, had original desire to collaborate with Belgian government to stage and exhibition and ultimately and expedition to the Congo Basin. Jesup was a personal friend of Belgian Consul Pierre Mali which helped pave a relationship between the Museum and that government.
Joseph
associated dates: 1909-1915

A Bantu of the Bakusu at Stanleyville and son of a chief, he was a helper throughout expedition that acted as headman, playing the role of a 'peacekeeper'
Juilliard, Augustus D.
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Kalifa
associated dates: 1909-1915

A Baka who usually acted as Lang's guide and tracker, notably took first stab at a leopard during a specimen hunt.
Kalonga
associated dates: 1909-1915

An elderly Bangwana chief of Bakusu origin, he remembered Stanley when he traveled the region
Kiparanga
associated dates: 1909-1915

member of the expedition
Kraft, Louis
associated dates: 1909-1915

Post master, one of two Belgians in Avakubi. He broke news of war to the men.
Lang, Herbert, 1879-1957
Lang acted as both Leader of the Expedition as well as photographer. He was selected as leader in 1908 and continued to be associated with the Museum until the 1930s.
Lanier, Charles, 1837-1926
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Léopold II, King of the Belgians, 1835-1909External link
associated dates: 1907-1908

King Leopold, a friend of J.P. Morgan. Jr., privately owned the Congo Free State. He agreed to gift the Museum over 3000 ethnographic objects for exhibit, and supportive of an expedition, thus beginning the good relations between Belgium and the Museum. The Congo was annexed by the Belgian government in 1908 amid criticism of humanitarian exploit, becoming the colony of the Belgian Congo.
Liebrechts, Charles, 1858-1938External link
Commandant, Secretary General of the Congo Department of the interior, he played a large role in arranging the gift to the Museum from King Leopold in 1908.
Malfeyt, Justin (1862-1924)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Vice-Governor general of the Province Orientale who provided assistance and notified commanding officer in Stanleyville that they were to be expected.
Mali, Pierre (1857-1923)
Belgian Consul in New York, Mali was a friend of Jesup, and was very involved in arranging introductions and promoting the relationship between the Belgian authorities and the Museum which led to the gift of ethnographic objects to be exhibited in the African hall as well as the Congo expedition.
Manziga
associated dates: 1909-1915

tribal chief
Maruka
associated dates: 1909-1915

A chif of the Logos, allowed Lang to make cast of him.
Massikini
associated dates: 1909-1915

Mangbetu chief near Medje, provided information about okapi
Matari
associated dates: 1909-1915

Judge Smets' gun bearer, assisted with hunts
Moncheur, Baron LudovicExternal link
Belgian Minister, corresponded with Bumpus to promote plan and agree on permissions.
Morgan
associated dates: 1909-1915

Morgan was in charge of the Anglo American Mission grounds at Leopoldville, Lang and Chapin stayed with him when in Leopoldville.
Morgan, John Pierpont Jr.
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Moulaert, L.
associated dates: 1909-1915

Vice-Governor at Leopoldville.
Nekuma
associated dates: 1909-1915

"Bird boy, " a young Mengbetu, son of King Okondo's soothsayer or witch doctor, acted as Chapin's assistant. Nekuma was a good hunter with bow and arrow, good with languages and excellent bird tracker. Chapin notes they traveled the Ituri Forest in 1913-14 and that no other assistant he trained was as interested or passionate about it. His name referenced the Mangbetu word for rain.
Nenzima, Queen
associated dates: 1909-1915

Was the oldest of King Okondo's wives, Queen Nenzima befriended and gave Lang necklaces of nails.
Niapu
associated dates: 1909-1915

Mangbetu chief
Okondo
associated dates: 1909-1915

Mangbetu King, a Bangba who welcomed and hosted the expedition and provided much toward the ethnographic collection. Rebuilt hall for Lang because he had read descriptions of it.
Osborn, Henry Fairfield (1887-1935)
President of the Museum for length of the expedition, was instrumental in taking up the plan after he gained office.
Papai
associated dates: 1909-1915

Son of a pygmy mother and Bantu father, acted as helper for the expedition and made many friends.
Pot
associated dates: 1909-1915

Flemish agent of the state who provided guns for them to melt and make into nails for packing crates when they were running out of supplies to ship home.
Renkin, Jules (1962-1932)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Minister of Colonies at Brussels who corresponded with Whiteley in arrangement of permissions and concessions, assisted with obtaining porters and free storage, as well as arranging access to goods to barter with
Rockefeller, William, 1841-1922
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Royal Museum for Central AfricaExternal link
Located in Tervuren, Belgium. At the time the Museum was referred to as the Congo Museum at Tervuren or the Tervueren Museum. Objects were donated by King Leopold II in 1908 to the American Museum of Natural History. According to the original expedition agreement with the Belgian government in 1909, the Expedition was collecting specimens that would ultimately be given to the Terveuen Museum in Belgium. According to American Museum of Natural History annual reports, those duplicates were sent to Belgiun by 1930.
Saza
associated dates: 1909-1915

Zanda artist, assisted in the collection of ethnographic objects by providing commissions as well as contextual explanations of the work to Lang.
Senze
Mangbetu chief
Siffer, Maurice
associated dates: 1909-1915

Captain, Chef de Secteur de Nepoko, was very helpful to the expedition as they were in his area for months and advised about okapi.
Smets, Charles
associated dates: 1909-1915

Judge stationed near Faradje, befriended and assisted the Expedition during their tenure. Was able to hunt large mammals without a permit.
Trevor, John B. (John Bond), 1878-1956
associated dates: 1909-1915

Donor and Chairman of the Special Committee for the Congo Expedition.
Van Campenhout, Emile
associated dates: 1909-1915

Doctor in Brussels, inspected expedition and advised Lang and Chapin before they set off for Boma.
Van Damme, Maurice
associated dates: 1909-1915

Secretary General of the colony at Boma, assisted the group early in the Expedition.
Vanderbilt, William K. (William Kissam)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Trustee, donor of the Expedition.
Vergruyssen (Vercruys or Vercruyssen)
associated dates: 1909-1915

Called 'Mambuti,' aide to Boyton at Medje in 1910. He would give the team a specimen.
Whiteley, James Gustavus, 1866-
Consul General of the Congo Free State in Baltimore and member of the Special Committee on the Congo Expedition, Whiteley was active in the planning and arranging of the Expedition.
Wilson, Henry Lane, 1857-1932External link
associated dates: 1909-1915

American Ambassador to Belgium, assisted them in Brussels arranging concessions and permissions that were necessary.
Zebuandra
associated dates: 1909-1915

A Mengbetu chief who had given Lang a knife to add to the anthropological collection.
the Sirdar
associated dates: 1909-1915

Took them on a hunting trip in the Sudan where they acquired a Giant Eland specimen.

Related Resources

subjectOf
American Museum Congo Expedition 1909-1915 [electronic resource].
associated dates: 2002-

Creator: American Museum of Natural History Extent: electronic resource Location: http://diglib1.amnh.org/ Note: Website created by the American Museum of Natural History about the American Museum Congo Expedition, was used as starting point for this record.
subjectOf
AMNH African Ethnographic Collection database.
Creator: American Museum of Natural History Extent: electronic resource Location: http://anthro.amnh.org/africa Note: Database of the African collection of the American Museum of Natural History Anthropology department, much of which was collected by the Congo Expedition.
creatorOf
AMNH Central Administrative Archives, Congo Expedition Records.
associated dates: 1909-1915

Creator: American Museum of Natural History. Extent: Repository: AMNH, Central Administrative Archives, 771
creatorOf
Congo Expedition bills and expenditures.
associated dates: 1909-1920

Creator: American Museum of Natural History. Extent: 2 boxes (0.75 linear feet). Repository: AMNH Research Library, Departmental Records, Call no: DR028B
subjectOf
Congo Expedition records 1909-1925 1909-1914 [microform].
Creator: Herbert Lang Extent: 1 microfilm reel ; 35 mm. Repository: AMNH Research Library Archives, Call no. Archives Microfilm #43; original is in AMNH Department of Mammalogy.
subjectOf
[Various papers on the American Museum Congo Expedition].
associated dates: 1910-1920

Creator: Herbert Lang Extent: 11 items in 1 box : ill. ; 26 cm. Repository: AMNH Research Library, Call no: QH195.C6 L3 Note: collection of articles by Lang, Chapin and one by Mary Cynthia Dickerson
subjectOf
[Field notebooks / Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin].
associated dates: 1909-1915

Creators: Herbert Lang and James P. Chapin Extent: 22 v. : ill. ; 21-23 cm. Repository: Each field book is located in the appropriate Department; but available electronically through the American Museum Congo Expedition website http://diglib1.amnh.org/cgi-bin/database/index.cgi
subjectOf
American Museum Congo Expedition correspondence, 1917-1920.
associated dates: 1917-1920

Creator: American Museum of Natural History Extent: 1 box (0.25 linear feet) Repository: AMNH Research Library Special Collections, Call no: Mss .C661
American Museum of Natural History, Special Collections Photo Prints; Lang-Chapin Congo Expedition, 1909-1915; American Museum of Natural Hstory Archives.
associated dates: 1909-1916

Extent: 2 partially filled drawers Repository: AMNH Research Library Special Collections.

Written by: Kendra Meyer
Last modified: 2016 November 8


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