Harold Elmer Anthony (born April 5, 1890, died March 29, 1970) was a mammalogist and worked at the American Museum of Natural History for over 50 years. He specialized in mammals of the Western Hemisphere and led many expeditions to South and Central America. Anthony was the Chairman and Curator in the Department of Mammalogy and was the Dean of Scientific Staff for several years. The Museum's mammal halls were created under his leadership: Hall of North American Mammals, Akeley Hall of African Mammals and Hall of South Asiatic Mammals. He wrote "Field Book of North American Mammals" (1928) and "Mammals of Porto Rico, Living and Extinct" (1925, 1926, in two volumes).