Charles Marcus Breder (1897-1983) was an ichthyologist who held curatorial and directorial positions at the New York Aquarium and the American Museum of Natural History, including the Museum’s Lerner Marine Laboratory. His repute rests in part on work in fish behavior, including locomotion, and prodigious writing. Throughout his career he undertook fieldwork within the Americas. Breder died at age eighty-six on October 28, 1983, in Englewood Hospital, Florida.
The American Museum of Natural History's 1901-1904 Expedition to China was
one of the first American attempts to study the history and culture of a
literate, technologically sophisticated civilization. Led by Berthold Laufer,
the expedition was intended to be a holistic anthropological study, documenting
the industrial and social life of the Chinese people. Laufer's work encompassed
ethnology, archaeology and physical anthropology; his collections included
books, paintings, inscriptions, bas-reliefs, bronzes, pottery, metal mirrors,
theater puppets and musical transcriptions.(1)
Berthold Laufer was a philologist, anthropologist, museum curator and sinologist. Laufer was born in Germany and studied Asian languages at the University of Leipzig. In 1898 and 1899 he led expeditions to Sakhalin and the Amur River region of Siberia during the Jesup North Pacific Expedition directed by Franz Boas, who became Laufer's mentor. From 1901 to 1904, Laufer worked in China, collecting for the American Museum of Natural History. Laufer moved to the Field Museum of Natural History in 1907, becoming curator of anthropology, and leading two more expeditions: to China and Tibet in 1908-1910, and to China in 1923. Laufer published over 200 works on ethnology, language studies, art, archaeology, and the histories of domestic animals and cultivated plants.
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